Written by Dr. Thomas R. Willard, 1996 Ferrets USA
Make sure the food you choose for your ferret is “complete and balanced for all stages of a ferret’s life as determined in actual animal feeding tests.” A food that has been developed for ferrets for all of their life stages should contain a minimum of 36 percent protein and 22 percent fat, plus a maximum of 2 percent fiber. These portions make up a balanced diet for young, growing and active male and female ferrets.
Most dry cat foods and virtually all dry dog foods exceed 3 percent fiber, which leads to large, smelly stools when fed to ferrets.
Ingredients to look for;
Chicken and poultry byproduct meal, meat meal, whole eggs, liver, poultry or animal byproducts are all excellent primary sources of protein for ferrets. Chicken and poultry byproduct meal or whole chicken meat should always be the first ingredient of a quality ferret food.
A high-quality, simple carbohydrate, such as rice flour or brewers rice, should be the second or third ingredient. These help give the food the correct texture for the best taste, plus improve the digestibility of the food.
Fat from chicken, poultry or other animals should be the third of fourth ingredients. Other important and useful fat sources – such as vegetable oils, lecithin, corn oil or fish oil – should also be present, but further down the list. Wheat, corn of the flours of these grains may also be listed, but generally should not be higher than fifth or sixth from the top of the list.
Some fish protein, such as herring meal, should be listed further down the ingredient panel because it provides high-quality protein to offer nutritional balance. Vitamins, minerals and individual amino acids, such as lysine, methionine and taurine, will also be listed toward the bottom of the label.
What not to feed;
Because ferrets are obligate carnivores, they do not digest vegetables or fruits (like bananas, raisins, apples) or other high fibre foods that humans like to offer as treats or snacks. Most ferrets will not refuse such a snack, but the snacks offer no nutritional benefit over a well-balanced dry food. If given in moderation, an occasional snack will not harm your pet.
Regardless if they are for ferrets, cats or dogs, supplements (oils with or without vitamins and minerals, nutritional tablets, enzymes or powders) should not be necessary if a properly tested and balanced food is being fed.
Other foods or ingredients to avoid are those that contain a high level of vegetable protein, such as soyflour, soybean meal, corn gluten meal or wheat gluten. Foods with high levels of such ingredients should never be fed to a ferret.
Also, a food that lists ingredients in categories as “animal protein products,” “plant protein products” or other collective terminology should never be fed to ferrets or any other companion animal. These are nonspecific, least-cost formulas and usually contain many ingredients that are of poor quality for ferrets. The manufacturer should be able to explain any ingredient you do not understand. Call and ask.
Fact: Ferrets do not come to shelters because of behavior problems. Ferrets are surrendered to shelters for the same reasons as other pets. Owners may move to a new apartment where pets aren’t allowed, experience a change in work schedule that doesn’t leave enough time in the day to take good care of the ferret, or the most common reason: owners simply get tired of the ferret. Most times the ferret is a wonderful animal who simply wasn’t wanted in the former home.
Foods such as breads, breakfast cereals, cakes and cookies should not be fed. Many of these items contain refined sugars, which can cause damage to the ferret’s pancreas, resulting in diabetes. Unfortunately, ferrets love sweet foods and may beg for these treats, but you take a serious risk with your pet’s health in offering them.
Because ferrets pass food through their bodies at a rapid rate, they need to eat frequently. Obesity is rarely a problem. Allow the ferret access to dry food at all times in a heavy crock-type bowl or a hanging feeder.
Ferrets have a tendency to develop hairballs, particularly if more than 1 year old. Unlike cats, ferrets do not vomit these masses of hair and can develop intestinal obstructions or become severely debilitated.
To lubricate the hair and keep it moving out of the stomach before it forms a large mass, give the ferret about 1 inch or 1/4 teaspoon of a cat hairball laxative every three days. Ferrets generally love the taste of this sticky substance.